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Ed vaccines) or viruses (inactivated vaccines) inactivated by chemical or physicalEd vaccines) or viruses (inactivated vaccines) inactivated by chemical or physical treatmentsToxoids vaccinesPurified exotoxins chemically inactivated into toxoids that retain the ability to induce toxin-neutralizing antibodiesSubunit/ polysaccharide vaccinesAntigenic components of pathogens: partly or fully pu
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To protein Variable degree of carrier immunogenicity; need adjuvants (and oftenTo protein Variable degree of carrier immunogenicity; need adjuvants (and often multiple doses); frequent local reactions at the injection siteHumoral immunityDiphtheria; tetanus; pertussis; haemophilus influenzae type b; poliomyelitis; rabies; meningitidis; Japanese encephalitis; cholera; hepatitis A; hepatitis B
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To protein Variable degree of carrier immunogenicity; need adjuvants (and oftenTo protein Variable degree of carrier immunogenicity; need adjuvants (and often multiple doses); frequent local reactions at the injection siteHumoral immunityDiphtheria; tetanus; pertussis; haemophilus influenzae type b; poliomyelitis; rabies; meningitidis; Japanese encephalitis; cholera; hepatitis A; hepatitis B
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Ficient RNA replication resulting in almost 200000 RNA copies [27] from each RNAFicient RNA replication resulting in almost 200000 RNA copies [27] from each RNA template . Although replication-deficient particles provide a high level of safety, there is still a marginal risk of the generation of replication-proficient particles through nonhomologous recombination. To minimize this risk, spli