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Th families. There are several limitations in this study. First, the 2013 Southeast Asian haze crisis was a temporary perturbation on the ecosystem which lasted for one week. Therefore, the period of exposure to the haze was short. We could only study the acute physical symptoms and psychological stress. Our results cannot be generalized to sub-acute and long-term physical and psychological compli
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F birthing and adjustment to motherhood. Sydney, Australia: School of Behavioural Sciences, Macquarie University; 1993:61. 47. Kennedy HP, et al: Negotiating sleep - A qualitative study of new mothers. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2007, 21(2):114?22. 48. Wang MY, Wang SY, Tsai PS: Cognitive behavioural therapy for primary insomnia: a systematic review. J Adv Nurs 2005, 50(5):553?4. 49. Morin CM, Culber
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And mild psychological disturbances in healthy individuals. We hope that our results will raise the global awareness of the negative effects of haze on the physical and mental health of humans. Our findings provide guidance to the health authorities to focus on reducing physical symptoms, especially headache, eye, nose and throat discomfort and breathing difficulty, in order to reduce psychologica
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Fact that the concentration of the pollutants were within legal ranges. The low threshold for health hazard and the number of physical symptoms independently determine psychological stress and these factors may contribute to the anticipatory anxiety. Our study did not find a difference in the levels of psychological stress between respondents who filled the questionnaire during the periods with lo
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In Indonesia born during the 1997 haze crisis experienced approximately 4.4 percent increase in their infant mortality risks. Fifth, this was a cross-sectional study and described the physical symptoms and psychological stress of a population experiencing a haze crisis, but not able to determine cause-and-effect relationships between different variables. Nevertheless, conducting research, recruiti
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F birthing and adjustment to motherhood. Sydney, Australia: School of Behavioural Sciences, Macquarie University; 1993:61. 47. Kennedy HP, et al: Negotiating sleep - A qualitative study of new mothers. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2007, 21(2):114?22. 48. Wang MY, Wang SY, Tsai PS: Cognitive behavioural therapy for primary insomnia: a systematic review. J Adv Nurs 2005, 50(5):553?4. 49. Morin CM, Culber
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Ological stress. Regional organization such as the ASEAN should formulate and reinforce policies to prevent future illegal burning in farms and plantations as a cheap way to prepare land for agricultural use.Competing interests 1. In the past five years have you received reimbursements, fees, funding, or salary from an organization that may in any way gain or lose financially from the publication
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Ited by Eaton P. New York: Nova Publishers; 2001. 11. Piliang K: Indonesia arrests 8 in fires causing choking haze. http://www. irrawaddy.org/asia/indonesia-arrests-8-in-fires-causing-choking-haze.html. 12. Schiffman SS: Introduction: health and ecological linkages. Environ Int 2003, 29:351. 13. Gadit AAM: Ecology and mental health: time to understand ecopsychiatry. J Pakistan Med Assoc 2009, 59:5